Roofs determine to a great extent the length of life of buildings. 3C concrete, which is light-weight, possesses high frost resistance and great thermo-insulator and water-proof qualities, turns out to be a very suitable material for construction of flat (level) roofs. For sloping roofs most effective is the use of pre-cast «3С» slabs.
- Lightweight (300-400 kg/m³);
- Volume. From 1 ton of dry mix output 2.5-3 m³ of concrete;
- High frost resistance. More than 50 freeze-thaw cycles;
- Thermo insulation. Low thermal conductivity: starting 0.08 W/mK*℃;
- Starting strength no less 0.4 mPa. Will keep increasing during the lifetime due to natural hardening properties;
After hardening of the material in 3-7 days the «3С» layer is covered with a 1-2 mm layer of single component rubber (bitumen cold wax). On top of it is laid glass fibre cloth and another 2-3 mm layer of bitumen wax. On the very top the roof is protected with any known technique. The procedure is simple and replaces the traditional multi-layer "pie" of flammable roll materials.
The floors made of «3С» are multifunctional. «3С» is a reliable and long lasting material for floors with its water resistance, sound and thermo-insulation qualities and lightweight.
Floors of «3С» are free of harmful to man's health components. They are second after wood in hygienic properties. They are heat and fire resistant and at 1000 ℃ they last quite long and do not produce harmful gases.
Floors of «3С» are easily repaired, encapsulating pipeline, electric and other communications. Besides that «3С» allows to complete in just one working cycle the traditional several cycles needed to complete the multi-layer floor constructions and at much lower cost.
- Lightweight (500-600 kg/m³);
- Cost. From 1 ton of dry mix output up to 2 m³;
- Thermo insulation. Thermal conductivity < 0.12 W/mK*℃;
- Strength 2-3 mPa. Will keep increasing with time due to natural hardening properties;
- Environment friendly. Free of harmful components;
«3С» is used in floors except for the very top finishing layer. The many years of exploitation of floors made of cellular concrete in residential, office and industrial buildings, as well as in buildings used in animal breeding, have proven the efficiency of the material. Besides that the layer of «3С» in floors can be laid on soil foundation, on concrete sub-floors, as well as on light overhead coverings.
«3С» concrete prepared from the «3С» dry mix is especially advantageous when used for construction of roads on soft soils! There is no need to remove soft soil until firm ground is reached and to replace it with rocky soil; thus, the construction costs can be considerably decreased.
High-performance and high-volume preparation of «3С» concrete compare to foam concrete, which substantially decreases time of works.
«3С» concrete is a light-weight material (300 - 400 kg/m³), which is monolithic and strong. Concrete is placed directly upon soft soil, creating a pontoon effect and serves as a base for the subsequent pavement layers. The technology is far less costly (more than twice) in comparison with the existing road building methods! The road boasts high stability in earthquake areas and is characterized by good insulation properties (capillary water interception, absence of frost heaving, reduced risk of soil freezing).
The advantages of using «3С» for road construction are:
- Capillary blocking - using «3С» within the roadway and the sidewalk reduces significantly the damage from frost heaving during the spring thaw. The use of «3С» as a base for the sidewalk and the road creates an extremely rigid foundation, thus prolonging the life of the pavement and reducing maintenance costs;
- Lower costs - «3С» replaces the insulation and bulk materials in construction and requires a much smaller thickness because of its characteristics, so as a result significant financial savings are realized;
- Easy to use - «3С» has a liquid consistency, so it is not afraid of the roughness of the excavation. Monolithic porous concrete can be cast and aligned exactly to the required level (thickness);
- Less excavation - «3С» typically requires three to four times less thickness than the loose materials (sand, gravel), and therefore reduces equally the depth of the excavation;
- Protection from adverse weather conditions - the use of «3С» protects the soil (the sub-grade) from softening in precipitation;
- Reduction of external damage - dumping and compacting of loose materials may violate and weaken the base of the soil sub-grade.
Comparative analysis of construction costs for roads on soft soils.
Two types of pavement:
- Traditional pavement used for soft soils;
- Pavement when using cellular concrete;
As prices for materials, locations of quarries, hauling distances, rates for construction work, etc. differ from region to region, our comparison will be based on the volumes of materials required for one square meter of a paving layer.
Materials for 1 m² of the road:
|Paving Layers||Thickness, m||Pavement, Type 1, m³||Pavement, Type 2, m³|
|Asphalt concrete pavement||0,125||0,125||0,125|
|Crushed stone base||0,150||0,150||0,150|
|Removed soil (peat)||5,0||0,95|
The table clearly demonstrates that the volume of removed soil (peat) is reduced 5 times with «3С» concrete!
«3С» concrete found a wide application in construction of tunnels. In cut-and-cover subway and tunnel construction, it leaves all other alternatives far behind when used as tunnel backfill! «3С» concrete, in contrast to soil, is a light-weight (300-400 kg/m³) monolithic material; it is characterized by quite a high strength and low thermal conductivity. All the above characteristics prevent soil from sinking, substantially reduce the pressure on the tunnel structure and minimize the depth of frost penetration. In deep-bore construction, it is used for filling the voids developed during the construction of the tunnel.
«3С» concrete is a perfect solution in construction or reconstruction of bridge approaches. The load on bridge approaches can be significantly decreased when «3С» concrete is used as a subbase. It is especially important when the bridge is adjacent to an embankment or land abutments. Ease of pouring, integrity, strength and light weight turn «3С» concrete into an excellent alternative to compacted soil or other traditional construction solutions.
«3С» is used in the construction of ports and moorings for backfills in cutoff walls. As the material is light-weight, hard, resistant to deformation and water-resistant, it has proved its obvious advantages in the process of exploitation.
«3С» is successfully applied in construction sites on oil and gas fields. The traditional foundations for large tanks (storage facilities for hydrocarbons and their derivatives) include a layer of sand beneath them. Under the tank this layer rises, spreads, etc. This often requires correction in different ways. Foundations and backfills made with «3С» have no such drawback.
At oil and gas fields «3С» has been also used in pipeline insulation, for backfills in abandoned wells, other voids and cavities, for strengthening of supporting walls, etc.
Water pipelines must be insulated, when they can't be laid below the frost penetration depth. The reasons for shallow burial may include conflicts with other utilities, operational reasons, change of grade, high level of ground waters, and high cost of explosive works in the presence of very hard rock.
When choosing insulation material durability should be taken into consideration. For example, known limitation of the application of plastic foam isolation is the decay with time. The advantages of the use of «3С» are simplicity and speed of building, greater strength, no need to provide flat surface in the trench, excellent thermal insulation and water resistance of the material.
Retaining walls is the term generally used for man-made structures intended to hold back soil or any other loose materials and to prevent them from sloughing or collapsing.
The retaining wall holding back the soil must withstand the active thrust generated by soil loads. The active thrust or earth pressure can cause collapse of the wall. The active thrust depends on the bulk density of the soil. The higher the density is, the higher the pressure will be. The average bulk soil density is 2,700 kg/m³ for firm soils. By replacing soil with «3С» composite cellular concrete with bulk density of 400 kg/m³ we can decrease the pressure 7 times and take full advantage of this amazing material.
Karst cavities develop in soils containing rock salt, gypsum and other soluble solids. Water dissolves and carries away particles of such solids, forming troughs and caves in the ground. To prevent collapse of the roadbed non-strengthened or poorly strengthened mining openings are backfilled with soil or are stabilized with rocks, following the traditional methods.
«3С» concrete, when mixed with water, has paint-like consistency and can easily fill cavities. When mature, it increases in volume up to 3.5 times, filling the entire cavity, including back angles! The material is impervious to water and is strong enough to prevent any further soil subsidence.
Our Company has developed a unique technology for making wall panels from «3С» concrete. This technology makes it possible to reduce substantially the time required for low-rise construction. A crew of 3 people and a boom truck can build a 200 square meters shell from «3С» wall panels within 1 week.
As an example, the weight of one wall panel SP12 – 1200 х 3100 х 380 mm, Type 400 – is 650 kg. In terms of thermal conductivity, it matches the characteristics of a wire-cut brick wall having the thickness of 3.5 m. The building needs only finishing, without any additional inside or outside heat insulation!
«3С» wall panels (L-shaped, partition, windowed panels, etc.) are designed with consideration for grooves along the perimeter of the panel for further installation of reinforcement and covering the interior space of the grooves with «3С» concrete prepared from the «3С» dry mix right at the construction site. The resulting grouting of panel joints eliminates any risk of occurrence of thermal bridges, which are typically observed in standard construction.
The structural design of the building – its walls, window and door apertures, ventilation shafts, flues, floor slabs and partition walls – has been thought out to the last detail; only «3С» wall panels, «3С» blocks and «3С» concrete are used; all of them are made from one material – the «3С» dry mix.
By using «3С» concrete made from the «3С» dry mix you can build one, two or three-storey houses without any other types of concrete or materials. The main task is to select the required density of the material. A house can be built in any place as soon as the mixture is delivered to the site and the proper mixer is selected. With the «3С» technology, a two-storey house can be built within 3 weeks; the construction time includes construction and finishing works. As «3С» concrete has low thermal conductivity, the house will not need any additional heat insulation with polystyrene or mineral wool. The house will stay cool in summer and warm in winter! «3С» concrete houses are environmentally sustainable, which is proved by Russian and European safety and health certificates.
Dreams about individuality of your own house, a high-rise building, an office or a shopping center can come true with the help of architectural elements created from «3С» concrete. The material demonstrates its best features when it is used for architectural elements decorating building facades, outdoor yard or garden areas. In comparison with the existing architectural solutions, such elements have a number of essential advantages:
- Light weight;
- Humidity and moisture resistance;
- High freeze-thaw resistance;
- Excellent shape and size retention;
- Fast and easy process of making;
- Implementation of the most daring ideas of architects;
- Chemical and bacterial resistance;
- Absence of smell.